The availability of electricity is still not evenly distributed throughout Indonesia, especially those located in remote areas in various provinces in Indonesia. The condition is worsened by the increasing demand for electricity in Indonesia as the population grows. Followed by fuel from natural resources (SDA) is increasingly thinning and can not be updated.
To meet the need for electricity to all corners of Indonesia, the President of Indonesia Joko Widodo or Jokowi proclaimed “35 thousand Megawatts of Electricity for Indonesia” program in 2015. This program became one of the government’s steps to build energy independence evenly. PT Pertamina also took part in the realization of this program.
The program that targets the use of new and renewable energy (EBT) is one of them uses microhydro power plant (PLTMH) system, that is utilizing the flow of water from the river, waterfall and irrigation channel.
PLTMH is a mini power system that can change the potential of water with certain heights and discharges into electricity below 500 kWh, by operating a water turbine and generator.
This water discharge management system is an alternative to meet the electricity needs of rural communities. Where has been widely implemented in Indonesia, such as in Subang, Sleman, Mojokerto, and Malang.
According to data from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) quoted at www.lipi.go.id in 2008, the potential of hydroelectric power in Indonesia is 75,000 megawatts and only absorbed 2.5 percent.
For the potential of PLTMH can reach 10 percent of the overall potential of hydroelectric power, or about 7,500 megawatts. However, it is only used with PLTMH of 60 megawatts.
The advantages of PLTMH itself, the abundant water potential, reliable and robust technology, so that it can operate for more than 15 years, environmentally friendly and renewable technology, and high efficiency reaches 70-85 percent.
The community will also be motivated to keep the forest environment from being cut down indiscriminately. Because, without reserves of water stored in forests, PLTMH difficult to operate optimally.
Based on data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) in 2016, there are 12 thousand villages in Indonesia that have not been well powered. A total of 2,915 villages have yet to get electricity and 9,000 villages can only enjoy electricity for 2-3 hours each day.
The ESDM Ministry established the Directorate General of Renewable Energy and Energy Conversion (EBTKE) in 2010 as a government move for future EBT development.
According to the Head of Communications, Public Information and Cooperation Services (KLIK) Bureau of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Dadan Kusdiana, with funding from the State Budget (APBN) of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the development of PLTMH in Indonesia continues to run.
“In 2016 PLTMH has been realized as many as 17 locations with a total capacity of about 1.094 kW and build multi-year PLTM contracts in two locations in Papua Province, namely in Pegunungan Bintang and Puncak regencies of 1.700 kW,” he told Liputan6.com, Monday (30/10/2017).
In the first half of 2017, the construction of PLTMH has reached 173 MW. Thus, electricity can flow to 9,169 households (heads of households) in 66 villages, 49 districts in 21 provinces across Indonesia.
The flow of electricity is spread in various provinces, such as in North Sumatra (North Sumatra), East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), North Kalimantan (Kaltara), Gorontalo, South Sulawesi (Sulsel), Papua, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Riau, West Sumatra), and West Sulawesi (Sulbar).
“The program is aimed at meeting the electricity needs of Indonesians with economic growth reaching 7-8 percent in the last five years, with the government trying to target 2,500 villages that have not been reached by the State Electricity Company (PLN),” he said.
PLTMH potential in Indonesia is estimated to be absorbed about 19.3 gigawatts of total water energy potential to reach 75 GW. Where, most of the development of PLTMH uses crossflow turbine system compared to Archimedes, because it is more effective to utilize head and river discharge in Indonesia.